The association was investigated between psychological distress reported during each trimester of pregnancy and maternal ratings of temperament when the children were 6 months and 5 years of age. Mothers in the greater Helsinki area who were to give birth during a 1-year period completed a brief questionnaire describing their psychological adjustment and medical symptoms at each prenatal visit to government health clinics. Mothers rated their children's temperament at ages 6 months and 5 years. Maternal psychological distress during pregnancy was only modestly associated with infant temperament. However, maternal distress during the first trimester was associated with ratings of negative emotionality at age 5 years, with a stronger correlation for males. Inhibition at age 5 was predicted by infant distress to novelty, particularly for males.
Martin, Roy P.; Noyes, Jennifer; Wisenbaker, Joseph; and Huttunen, Matti O.
"Prediction of Early Childhood Negative Emotionality
and Inhibition From Maternal Distress During Pregnancy,"
Merrill-Palmer Quarterly: Vol. 45
, Article 3.
Available at: https://digitalcommons.wayne.edu/mpq/vol45/iss3/3