Research Mentor Name

James Paxton

Research Mentor Email Address

Institution / Department

Detroit Receiving Hospital: Department of Emergency Medicine

Document Type

Research Abstract

Research Type


Level of Research



The introduction of fluids and medications via intraosseous (IO) infusion is highly dependent upon many unique aspects of bone anatomy and physiology. Key considerations include differences in the medullary cross-sectional area between insertion sites, age- and location-dependent variation in the distribution of red and yellow bone marrow, volume and pressure capacity within the venous system, and the influence of hormones and other chemical messengers on vasomotor tone. In addition to an exploration of these concepts, this chapter will also discuss the physiologic basis for pharmacokinetic relationships reported in the prevailing literature and propose methods to optimize the use of IO infusion in the care of critically ill patients.


Medicine and Health Sciences