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Access Type

WSU Access

Date of Award

January 2018

Degree Type


Degree Name




First Advisor

Matthew J. Allen


The research described in this thesis was focused on detection of EuII and EuIII using different

modes of imaging, such as 19F-magnetic resonance imaging and photoacoustic imaging within the

context of oxygen-sensitive imaging agents. Prior to this research, EuII had been explored as a T1

shortening contrast agent for magnetic resonance imaging, but the optical properties of EuII had

never been explored within the context of an oxidation-responsive imaging agent, and a redox

responsive 19F- magnetic resonance imaging signal had not been detected in vivo.

A fluorinated EuII-containing complex was used to evaluate positive contrast intraperitoneal

until it was oxidized to the corresponding EuIII-containing complex in vivo and detected with 19F

magnetic resonance imaging. Additionally, oxidized EuIII-containing complex was detected intact

in mouse urine, which is promising for future toxicity studies and use in vivo. Two EuII-containing

complexes that absorb visible light, were detected using photoacoustic imaging until oxidized to

the EuIII-containing analogs which turns the photoacoustic signal off.

The ability to form unique images EuII/III-containing complexes as a function of oxidation state

is a powerful tool to distinguish regions of hypoxia in vivo.

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