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Background: Previous studies concerning the relevance of the BDKRB2 gene polymorphisms revealed that the absence (–9 allele) of a 9 base pair sequence in exon 1 of the BDKRB2 gene is correlated with higher skeletal muscle metabolic efficiency, glucose uptake during exercise, as well as endurance athletic performance. Aim: The aim of the study was to investigate the association between the BDKRB2 -9/+9 polymorphism and elite athletic status in two cohorts of east-European athletes. Therefore, we examined the genotype distribution of the BDKRB2 9/+9 polymorphic site in a group of Polish athletes and confirmed the results obtained in a replication study of Russian athletes. Methods: Three hundred and two Polish athletes and 684 unrelated sedentary controls as well as 822 Russian athletes and 507 unrelated sedentary volunteers were recruited for this study. All samples were genotyped for the -9/+9 polymorphism within exon 1 of the BDKRB2 gene using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Significance was assessed by χ2 analysis with Bonferroni's correction for multiple testing. Results: We have not found any statistical difference in the -9/+9 genotype and allele frequencies in two groups of athletes divided into four subgroups, i.e. endurance, sprint-endurance, sprint-strength and strength athletes, when compared with controls. There weren't any significant differences found in allele frequencies (P = 0.477) and genotype distribution (P = 0.278) in the initial and replication studies. Conclusion: No association was found between the BDKRB2 -9/+9 polymorphism and elite athletic status in two cohorts of east- European athletes