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Many scholars have conducted research on the growth patterns of children’s skulls in terms of skull size, head circumference, cranial cavity volume, and so forth. This study compared and analyzed 20 skull measurement indexes of different ages from 38 children’s skulls (aged 2–15) and 87 adult female skulls (aged 20–40) at the Zaghunluq cemetery in Xinjiang, China, in an attempt to figure out how the size Children’s of ancient children’s skulls changed with age. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed that there were significant differences between the six age groups (2 years, 3–5 years, 6–8 years, 9–11 years, 12–15 years, and adults) in terms of metrical cranial traits, cranial area, and cranial cavity volume. The study indicated that the skull kept growing from ages 3 to 5, 12 to 15, and 15 to adulthood, implying that the skull sizes of ancient children in Xinjiang continued to increase with age. In addition, the study revealed that children aged 12 to 15 had skulls that were significantly smaller than those of adults. This finding showed that the skulls of ancient children in Xinjiang were not fully developed at the age of 15. It is also important to note that differences existed between age groups in both the developmental traits of the cranium and the rate at which the skull changes.