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Demographic data were collected from 185 sedentary Oraon of Gumla district o f Bihar, 255 migrant Oraon, and 242 migrant Tamang households, covering a total population of 1009, 1414, and 1537 individuals, respectively. Both migrant groups were tea garden laborers working in the Birpara, Lankapara, and Tulsipara tea gardens in the Jalpaiguri district, West Bengal, India. The present study reveals that the migrant Oraon possess significantly higher fertility and (infant) mortality than the sedentary Oraons even though they are a genetically similar group. The study also reveals that the two migrant groups differ with respect to both fertility and mortality even though they inhabit similar physical and sociocultural environments.