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Studies of serum proteins, haptoglobins, transferrins and hemoglobin types were performed on 112 Mulia and 201 Swart valley subjects from the Central Highlands of Western New Guinea. Haptoglobin and transferrin frequencies were not significantly different between the two groups and were within the range found for other New Guinea populations. In the goitrous population at Mulia, albumin levels were significantly lower than the adjacent Swart valley population with low goiter incidence.Yet both groups had significantly lower levels of albumin than found in other areas of New Guinea. These values were consistent with the observed protein deficiency in the Western Dani diet, especially at Mulia. Gamma globulin levels were high in Mulia and Swart valley subjects, but within the range for other New Guinea populations. The /l-thalassemia trait was absent and no other abnormal hemoglobins were detected in either group.