Date of Award

Fall 12-11-2017

Degree Type

Honors Thesis

Degree Name




Faculty Advisor

Aundra Freeman


My thesis, “The Analytical Methods Used to Detect Fluoride in Dental Pharmaceuticals” discusses the various analytical chemistry methods which are incorporated in the field of dentistry in order to detect fluoride in pharmaceuticals such as toothpaste and mouthwash. The oral cavity is exposed to various forms of bacteria, many of which enter through the consumption of foods and drinks that contain sugar and starch. The side effects of fluoride have been a controversial component of oral healthcare, however, many benefits have been discussed. Water fluoridation has been one of many significant methods of incorporating fluoride into the oral cavity, enhancing enamel strength, and preventing cavities. Analytical methods such as fluoride- selective electrode (Jenway), solid-phase microextraction, liquid-liquid extraction, high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace molecular absorption spectrometry (HR-CS GF MAS), ion chromatography (IC), and fluoride-ion selective electrodes (F-ISE). These methods vary, some being more beneficial than others, however, all have been useful in detecting fluoride concentrations in dental products. The HR-CS GF MAS was most efficient, not only in the detection of fluoride in pharmaceuticals, but also in the expansion of the technique to measure other samples. This method can also be used for samples such as blood, urine, foods, and pharmaceuticals. Maintaining oral health is important with respect to overall health as well. Dental hygiene methods have improved over the years and will continue to improve in the future through the use of analytical methods. Protecting the oral cavity (enamel) is made possible through the combination of polyvalent metals (tin and titanium), amino acids, proteins, as well as fluoride.