Living bush and forest African elephants, hitherto regarded as a single species, are evolutionarily and ecologically distinct forms. They deserve to be ranked as full species: the bush African elephant, Loxodonta africana (Blumenbach, 1797), and the forest African elephant Loxodonta cyclotis (Matschie, 1900). L. cyclotis is phylogenetically more primitive than L. africana. The implications of this designation may help in conserving these keystone species.
Grubb, P., Groves, C. P., Dudley, J. P., & Shoshani, J. (2000). Living African elephants belong to two species: Loxodonta africana (Blumenbach, 1797) and Loxodonta cyclotis (Matschie, 1900). Elephant, 2(4), 1-4. Doi: 10.22237/elephant/1521732169