Document Type



Objective: This study replicates and extends the work of Gucciardi and colleagues (2011) in relation to the validity of the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC; Connor & Davidson, 2003) in sport. Three primary aims were explored: 1) Examine the factor structure and fit of three versions of the CD-RISC: the original 25-item CD-RISC, both as a 25-item five factor scale and as a 25-item unidimensional scale, and the 10-item CD-RISC-10; 2) examine gender invariance of the best fitting version of the CD-RISC; and 3) examine the validity of the best fitting CD-RISC by relating it to affect and performance anxiety in a sample of competitive American distance runners (N= 409).

Design: Cross-sectional.

Methods: Multiple self-report questionnaires were delivered through an online medium.

Results: Using confirmatory factor and item level analyses, the CD-RISC-10-item scale was psychometrically superior to the unidimensional 25-item and the five factor 25-item CD-RISC versions. The CD-RISC-10-item exhibited measurement invariance for gender, with significant configural, strong, and weak analyses. Using structure equation modeling, the CD-RISC-10-item scale moderately and positively correlated with positive affect and was inversely related to negative affect and performance anxiety, establishing convergent and divergent validity.

Conclusion: The findings support Gucciardi and colleagues’ 2011 findings that the CD-RISC-10 is a valid and reliable instrument to assess resilient qualities in sport.


Exercise Science | Kinesiology


Thanks to Brooks Sports, Trail Runner Magazine, Fleet Feet Savannah, Salt Lake Running Company, Mountain Trails Foundation, and the Sports Guide Magazine for data collection assistance.

© 2016. This manuscript version is made available under the CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0 license