Document Type



The purpose of this study was to investigate the motivational factors affecting sport spectator involvement using 304 spectators from NCAA Division II men's and women's basketball games. Two aspects (behavioral and socio-psychological) of sport spectator involvement were examined. The results revealed that spectators at intercollegiate basketball games had a higher level of socio-psychological involvement than behavioral involvement. A series of multiple regression analyses were conducted to examine the affects of sociomotivational factors (perceived value, fan identification, involvement opportunity, and reference groups) on sport spectator involvement. Fan identification, involvement opportunity, and reference groups were identified as influential factors that had a significant impact on overall sport spectator involvement. The results also indicated that the four motivational factors predicted more variance for socio-psychological involvement (R2 = .33) than behavioral involvement (R2 = .22). The findings of this study provide valuable insight to Division II athletic administrators about how to attract additional spectators to collegiate basketball games.


Social Psychology and Interaction | Sports Sciences | Sports Studies


NOTICE IN COMPLIANCE WITH PUBLISHER POLICY: This article is copyright © 2009 Maney Publishing / Left Coast Press and was originally published as

Choi, Y., Martin, J. J., Park, M., & Yoh, T. (2009). Motivational factors influencing sport spectator involvement at NCAA Division II basketball games. Journal for the Study of Sports and Athletes in Education, 3(3), 265-284.