We examined the relationships among trait and state psychological variables and performance in male high school distance runners using the Sport Orientation Questionnaire (SOQ; Gill & Deeter, 1988), the Competitive Orientation Inventory (COI; Vealey, 1986), the Trait Sport-Confidence Inventory (TSCI; Vealey, 1986), the State Sport-Confidence Inventory (SSCI; Vealey, 1986), the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 (CSAI-2; Martens, Burton, Vealey, Bump & Smith, 1990), and separate self-efficacy scales for performance (time) and outcome (place). As hypothesized, trait sport-confidence predicted state sport-confidence and outcome self-efficacy. However, competitive orientation did not contribute to the prediction of state measures. State sport-confidence and self-efficacy predicted performance, as hypothesized. Surprisingly, outcome self-efficacy was a stronger predictor than performance self-efficacy, which did not contribute tot he prediction of performance time or place. The runners' youth and lack of competitive track experience may have prevented them from forming accurate performance self-efficacy judgments. In contrast, the familiar and small competitive field may have allowed these athletes to form accurate outcome self-efficacy judgments.
Quantitative Psychology | Sports Sciences | Sports Studies
Martin, J. J., & Gill, D.L. (1991). The relationships among competitive orientation, sport-confidence, self-efficacy, anxiety, and performance. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 13(2), 149-159.