Document Type



This article explores the perceptions of urban African-American and Iraqi refugee adolescents regarding community violence, school violence, family violence and dating/intimate partner violence. A subset of participants from a larger study on violence and trauma was selected to participate in the current study. Using a card-sort exercise, participants identified situations as violent or not violent. Iraqi youth identified noticeably more behaviors as violence than African-American youth. Few significant gender differences emerged. Findings of important cultural differences provide implications for violence prevention programming.


Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence | Social Control, Law, Crime, and Deviance | Social Psychology and Interaction | Social Work


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