Document Type



We report on the results of a simultaneous monitoring campaign employing eight Chandra X-ray (0.5-10 keV) and six Very Large Array/Extended Very Large Array (8.4 GHz) radio observations of NGC 4051 over seven months. Evidence for compact jets is observed in the 8.4 GHz radio band; this builds on mounting evidence that jet production may be prevalent even in radio-quiet Seyferts. Assuming comparatively negligible local diffuse emission in the nucleus, the results also demonstrate an inverse correlation of L radio ∝ L -0.72±0.04 X-ray . If the A configuration is excluded in the case where diffuse emission plays a significant role, the relation is still L_radio ∝ L_{X-ray}^{-0.12 ± 0.05}. Current research linking the mass of supermassive black holes and stellar-mass black holes in the "low/hard" state to X-ray luminosities and radio luminosities suggests a "fundamental plane of accretion onto black holes" that has a positive correlation of L radio ∝ L 0.67±0.12 X-ray . Our simultaneous results differ from this relation by more than 11σ (6σ excluding the A configuration), indicating that a separate mode of accretion and ejection may operate in this system. A review of the literature shows that the inverse correlation seen in NGC 4051 is seen in three other black hole systems, all of which accrete at near 10% of their Eddington luminosity, perhaps suggesting a distinct mode of disk-jet coupling at high Eddington fractions. We discuss our results in the context of disks and jets in black holes and accretion across the black hole mass scale.


Cosmology, Relativity, and Gravity | External Galaxies


NOTICE IN COMPLIANCE WITH PUBLISHER POLICY: ©2011, American Astronomical Society. Available at: doi:10.1088/0004-637X/729/1/19