Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are radical oxygen intermediates that serve as important second messengers in signal transduction. However, when the accumulation of these molecules exceeds the buffering capacity of antioxidant enzymes, oxidative stress and endothelial cell (EC) dysfunction occur. EC dysfunction shifts the vascular system into a pro-coagulative, proinflammatory state, thereby increasing the risk of developing cardiovascular (CV) diseases and metabolic disorders. Studies have turned to the investigation of microRNA treatment for CV risk factors, as these post-transcription regulators are known to co-regulate ROS. In this review, we will discuss ROS pathways and generation, normal endothelial cell physiology and ROS-induced dysfunction, and the current knowledge of common metabolic disorders and their connection to oxidative stress. Therapeutic strategies based on microRNAs in response to oxidative stress and microRNA’s regulatory roles in controlling ROS will also be explored. It is important to gain an in-depth comprehension of the mechanisms generating ROS and how manipulating these enzymatic byproducts can protect endothelial cell function from oxidative stress and prevent the development of vascular disorders.
Cardiovascular Diseases | Enzymes and Coenzymes | Medical Microbiology | Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences
Minjares M, Wu W, Wang J-M. Oxidative Stress and MicroRNAs in Endothelial Cells under Metabolic Disorders. Cells, 2023;12:1341. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells12091341