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Reports of invasive disease due to Streptococcus pneumoniae have declined since the introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV7 and PCV13). The incidence of invasive diseases due to S. pneumoniae that are not addressed by the vaccines, however, has increased in children and adults, creating a global public health problem. Previously, we established the loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method for a PCV13 serotype-specific assay. In the current study, we developed a rapid, simple, and cost-effective assay to detect serotypes in the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23) using the LAMP method. In this study, LAMP primer sets for serotypes 2, 8, 9N, 10A, 11A, 12F, 15B, 17F, 20, 22F, and 33F of S. pneumoniae were developed. The reactivity, specificity, and sensitivity of LAMP assays were determined and compared to those of conventional PCR. The feasibility of LAMP assays in clinical application in patients with invasive pneumococcal diseases was validated by defining the detection limit of the LAMP assay with bacterial genomic DNA-spiked blood specimens. The specificity of each LAMP assay was determined using 44 serotypes of pneumococcal strains. Their sensitivity was 100 copies per reaction versus 103 to 106 copies per reaction for PCR assays. Using DNA-spiked blood specimens, excluding the LAMP assay that targeted serotype 22F (103 copies per reaction), the limit of detection of the LAMP assay was similar to that with purified DNA as the template (102 copies per reaction), compared with 103 to > 106 copies per reaction for PCR assays. In conclusion, a rapid and simple LAMP-based PPSV23-targeted serotype detection assay was developed for use in many countries. This study is the first report of a LAMP-based assay for identification of PPSV23 serotypes. Further evaluation of this assay is needed through surveillance and vaccine efficacy studies.


Investigative Techniques | Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences


© 2021 Lee et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.