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A total of 755 highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)-naive HIV-infected patients were enrolled at a government hospital in Thailand from 1 June 2000 to 15 October 2002. Census date of survival was on 31 October 2004 or the date of HAART initiation. Of 700 (92.6%) patients with complete data, the prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) surface antigen and anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV) antibody positivity was 11.9% and 3.3%, respectively. Eight (9.6%) HBV co-infected patients did not have anti-HBV core antibody (anti-HBcAb). During 1166.7 person-years of observation (pyo), 258 (36.9%) patients died [22.1/100 pyo, 95% confidence interval (CI) 16.7–27.8]. HBV and probably HCV co-infection was associated with a higher mortality with adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) of 1.81 (95% CI 1.30–2.53) and 1.90 (95% CI 0.98–3.69), respectively. Interestingly, HBV co-infection without anti-HBc Ab was strongly associated with death (aHR 6.34, 95% CI 3.99–10.3). The influence of hepatitis co-infection on the natural history of HAART-naive HIV patients requires greater attention.


Immune System Diseases | Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences | Virus Diseases


Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2012. The online version of this article, originally published in Epidemiology & Infection with DOI 10.1017/S0950268812002397, is avilable subject to the conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike licence ( The written permission of Cambridge University Press must be obtained for commercial re-use.