Document Type

Dataset

Description

Contaminated urban soil is one of the major contributors to child Pb exposure. To gain a better understanding of Pb risk in urban areas, composite samples were collected from 142 residential, privately owned, parcels in Detroit, Hamtramck, and Highland Park, Michigan, with approval from the property owners. The proximity of soil sampling and former smelter locations were also reported. Sample were collected from areas covered with turf grass. Four samples were collected, one from each cardinal direction (north, south, east, and west), 20 cm from an aluminum tent stake driven into the center of the sampling site. Soils were collected with a bulb planter at approximately 10 cm depth. Between sampling sites, bulb planters were cleaned with a tap water-Liquinox detergent solution and then rinsed with ultrapure water (>18.2 MΩ/cm). Soils were mixed by hand in the field in one-gallon freezer bags prior to being transported back to the laboratory at Wayne State University. Once in the lab, bagged soils were air dried in a fume hood for at least two weeks.

Total soil Pb was analyzed according to EPA Method 3051a (U.S. EPA 2007). Briefly, 0.5g of sieved (µm) soil was placed in 10 mL of 68% trace-metal grade nitric acid and subjected to microwave assisted digestion in a MARSXpress digester (CEM Corporation, Matthews, NC) with a final reaction temperature of 175 ± 5 °C held for 4.5 minutes. After cooling, samples were diluted to a 17% nitric acid solution, centrifuged, and filtered through a 0.45µm PTFE filter. In vitro bioaccessible Pb was measured according to a modified (pH = 2) version of the Physiologically Based Extraction Test (PBET) (Ruby et al. 1996), using the sameµm size fraction. Since the standard PBET procedure utilizes a pH of 1.5, which underestimates changes in bioavailability following phosphate amendments (Zia et al. 2011), a pH of two was used in this study, consistent with Hettiarachchi et al. (2003).

Soil pH, CEC (cmol+/kg), OM content (%), and elemental concentrations (mg/kg), were measured by Dairyland Laboratories (Arcadia, WI) on the(2010), the soil pH was measured in a 1:1 soil: water slurry (Sikoral and Kissel 2014). The percent OM content was determined by loss on ignition (Davies 1974). Soil (5g) was transferred to a pre-weighed crucible and dried 2 or more hours at 105 ℃ in one of two ovens (ThermoScientific HeraTherm Oven OGS180 or Fisher Scientific Isotemp Oven Model 655G). Once dried, the mass was recorded and the sample was transferred to a Thermolyne Furnace where it was kept at 360 °C for 2 hr ± 1 min. Samples were left to cool for ten minutes, at which point the ash weight was determined. Samples were treated with the Mehlich 3 extracting solution to measure extractable phosphorus (Mehlich 1984).Calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), sodium (Na), sulfur (S), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) concentrations were quantified using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). For soils with a pH less than 7.3, the Bray P1 equivalent was used to report the P concentration. The CEC was based on the sum of Ca, Mg, K and acidity of the soil (Ross and Ketterings 2011).

Soil texture was based on the USDA soil texture triangle and was determined via particle size analysis and using the NRCS Soil Texture by Feel (Burt, 2014) method. Dairyland Laboratories (Arcadia, WI) performed the particle size analysis to identify the proportion of clay, sand, and silt.

The minimum distance (km) between sampling locations and 19 historical smelters in the Detroit metropolitan area was determined using GPS coordinates, latitude, and longitude.. The relative location downwind from historic smelters was derived from the bearing angle between the sampling location and the predominant wind direction from the smelter locations. The predominate wind direction was determined to be from the west-southwest (θ = 240°) based daily wind data from the Detroit City Airport weather station (USW00014822) of a ten year time period, from Jan. 1, 2010 to Dec. 31, 2019. The difference between the site bearing angle and 240° was then determined and the inverse of the difference in angle was calculated. Since the distance and direction measurements have inconsistent units, a z-score of the inverse measures of the parameters were then calculated. Finally, to quantify the relationship between sampling locations and smelters, z-scores of the inverse direction and difference in angle were multiplied together to create a compound proximity score.

References

Davies, Brian E. 1974. “Loss-on-Ignition as an Estimate of Soil Organic Matter.” Soil Science Society of America Journal 38(1): 150–51. https://doi.org/10.2136/sssaj1974.03615995003800010046x.

Hettiarachchi, G. M., G. M. Pierzynski, F. W. Oehme, O. Sonmez, and J. A. Ryan. 2003. “Treatment of Contaminated Soil with Phosphorus and Manganese Oxide Reduces Lead Absorption by Sprague-Dawley Rats.” J. Environ. Qual., 32 (4): 1335–1345. https://doi.org/10.2134/jeq2003.1335.

Mehlich, A. 1984. “Mehlich 3 Soil Test Extractant: A Modification of Mehlich 2 Extractant.” Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 15 (12): 1409–16. https://doi.org/10.1080/00103628409367568.

Miller, Robert O., and David E. Kissel. 2010. “Comparison of Soil pH Methods on Soils of North America.” Soil Science Society of America Journal 74 (1): 310–16. https://doi.org/10.2136/sssaj2008.0047.

Ross, Donald S, and Quirine Ketterings. 2011. “Recommended Methods for Determining Soil Cation Exchange Capacity (Chapter 9).” In Recommended Soil Testing Procedures for the Northeastern United States, 75–86. Cooperative Bulletin No. 493.

Ruby, Michael V., Andy Davis, Rosalind Schoof, Steve Eberle, and Christopher M. Sellstone. 1996. “Estimation of Lead and Arsenic Bioavailability Using a Physiologically Based Extraction Test.” Environmental Science & Technology 30 (2): 422–30. https://doi.org/10.1021/es950057z.

Sikoral, FJ, and DD Kissel. 2014. “Soil pH (Chapter 3.2).” In Soil Test Methods From the Southeastern United States., 48–61. Southern Cooperative Series Bulletin No. 419. Southern Extension and Research Activity Information Exchange Group - 6 (SERA-IEG-6). http://aesl.ces.uga.edu/sera6/MethodsManualFinalSERA6.pdf.

U.S. EPA. 2007. “METHOD 3051A MICROWAVE ASSISTED ACID DIGESTION OF SEDIMENTS, SLUDGES, SOILS, AND OILS.” United States Environmental Protection Agency.

Zia, Munir Hussain, Eton E. Codling, Kirk G. Scheckel, and Rufus L. Chaney. 2011. “In Vitro and in Vivo Approaches for the Measurement of Oral Bioavailability of Lead (Pb) in Contaminated Soils: A Review.” Environmental Pollution (Barking, Essex: 1987) 159 (10): 2320–27. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2011.04.043.

142 record dataset, soil samples

Data dictionary:

Variable: Variable Description; SampleID: Anonymous Sample Identifier (Each Sample ID represents a soil sample from a unique residential property in Detroit metropolitan area); FillStatus: Description of the type of soil sampled; FillType: Numerical classification of the type of soil sampled; TotalPb: Total soil lead concentration (mg/kg) of soils µm size extracted following US EPA Method 3051a and quantified by inductively couple mass spectrometry; IVBAmgkg: Concentration (mg/kg) of In vitro bioaccessible lead of soils µm size extracted according to a modified (pH = 2) version of the Physiologically Based Extraction Test (PBET) (Ruby et al. 1996) and quantified by inductively couple-mass spectrometry; IVBAperc: Percentage (%) of IVBA lead (IVBA/TotalPb∑100); Pppm: Concentration of phosphorus (mg/kg) of (Mehlich 1984) and quantified using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). For soils with a pH less than than 7.3, the Bray 1 equivalent P concentration is reported. ; pH: Soil pH measured in 1:1 soil:water slurry by Dairyland Laboratories (Arcadia, WI) on soil; OM: Soil organic matter content (%) measured by loss on ignition (Davies 1974) by Dairyland Laboratories (Arcadia, WI) on soil; CEC: Cation exhange capacity (cmol+/kg) is the summ of Ca, Mg, K, and the acidity of soil as measured by Dairyland Laboratories (Arcadia, WI) on soil; Cappm: Concentration of calcium (mg/kg) of (Mehlich 1984) and quantified using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES); Kppm: Concentration of potassium (mg/kg) of (Mehlich 1984) and quantified using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES); Mgppm: Concentration of magnesium (mg/kg) of (Mehlich 1984) and quantified using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES); Sppm: Concentration of sulfur (mg/kg) of (Mehlich 1984) and quantified using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES); Nappm: Concentration of sodium (mg/kg) of (Mehlich 1984) and quantified using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES); SoilTexture: Soil texture classification determeined by feel as per an NRCS method (Burt 2014) for soils sieved DLsand: Percentage (%) sand based on particle size analysis via gravimetric hydration (Burt 2014) perfomed at Dairyland Laboratories (Arcadia, WI); DLsilt: Percentage (%) silt based on particle size analysis via gravimetric hydration (Burt 2014) perfomed at Dairyland Laboratories (Arcadia, WI); DLclay: Percentage (%) clay based on particle size analysis via gravimetric hydration (Burt 2014) perfomed at Dairyland Laboratories (Arcadia, WI); DLtexture: Soil texture classificaiton based on particle size analysis via gravimetric hydration (Burt 2014) perfomed at Dairyland Laboratories (Arcadia, WI) ; DistSmelt: Minimum distance (km) to 1 of 19 historical smelters in the Detroit metroplitan area; DWSmelter: Code identifying soil sample locations that were downwind (within 45∞ of predominate wind direction) of 1 or more of 19 historical smelters in the Detroit metropolitan area. 1 - soil was downwind of smelter, 0 - soil was not downwind of smelter.; DWSmelterSum: Total number of smelters that soil sample locations were downwind from (within 45∞ of predominate wind direction), maximum number of 19 smelters; CompZmax: The maximum compound z-score of the proximity soil have to the historical locations of smelters. First, a z-score is calculated for the inverse distance to each of the 19 historical locations of smelters in the Detroit metroplitan area. Second, a z-score is calculated for inverse angle that is produced by the location of the soil sample and the vector productred by the predominate wind direction fom the histrical location of smelters. Finally, these two values are multipled eachother for each of the 19 smelters locations to create a compound z-score. The higher compound z-score, the closer the soil sample is to being proximate and downwind the historical location of a smelter. This value is the maximum compound z-score of the 19 values.; CompZmean: The mean compound z-score of the proximity soil have to the historical locations of smelters. First, a z-score is calculated for the inverse distance to each of the 19 historical locations of smelters in the Detroit metroplitan area. Second, a z-score is calculated for inverse angle that is produced by the location of the soil sample and the vector productred by the predominate wind direction fom the histrical location of smelters. Finally, these two values are multipled eachother for each of the 19 smelters locations to create a compound z-score. The higher compound z-score, the closer the soil sample is to being proximate and downwind the historical location of a smelter. This value is the mean compound z-score of the 19 values.

DOI

10.22237/waynestaterepo/data/1707253381

File Format

text/csv

File Size

17.6 KB

Funder Info

Funding provided by the Fred A. And Barbara M. Erb Family Foundation, https://www.erbff.org/, Crossref Funders Registry https://doi.org/10.13039/100015133.

License

Author[s] release this dataset under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC-BY 4.0, https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which grants the public rights to reuse and redistribute this data provided 1) appropriate attribution is given to the author[s]; and 2) a link to the source of the data and to the CC-BY 4.0 license is included.

Disciplines

Civil and Environmental Engineering | Environmental Health and Protection | Environmental Public Health | Toxicology | Urban Studies and Planning

Comments

Sabrina R. Good

Allison R. Harris

Patrick Crouch

Conor T. Gowan: ORCID 0009-0004-7249-3526

William D. Shuster: ORCID 0000-0001-7688-0110

Shawn P. McElmurry: ORCID 0000-0001-7398-431X

Available for download on Thursday, February 06, 2025

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