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Access Type

WSU Access

Date of Award

January 2019

Degree Type


Degree Name



Nutrition and Food Science

First Advisor

Pramod . Khosla


Tocotrienols are a form of Vitamin E that has shown many beneficial results to diseases such as atherosclerosis and cancer. Due to its antioxidant and lipid lowering properties, tocotrienols are believed to be beneficial in preventing atherogenic progression by enhancing cholesterol efflux. Cholesterol efflux is the first step in reverse cholesterol transport which aids in the regulation of blood lipids. When this is impaired, then it leads to foam cell formation eventually leading to atherosclerosis progression. The objective of this study was to see the effects of TRF which are derived from palm oil (74.68% tocotrienols and 23.5% tocopherols) on the influx genes (LOX-1, SRA1, CD36) and efflux genes (SR-B1, ABCA1, and ABCG1) on J774A.1 macrophages. MTS assay was run to ensure that treatment concentrations did not create a cytotoxic environment for the macrophages. Three trials of TRF and placebo were conducted with concentrations of treatment at 0µg/mL, 4µg/mL, and 8µg/mL at 24 hours and 48 hours. Results showed that TRF at 8µg/mL might have increased in the expression of SRA1, CD36, and ABCG1 at 48 hours but all study results were nonsignificant and highly variable. Overall, our data may suggest that in a non-oxidized state, studying the influx and efflux genes of the macrophage in regards to cholesterol metabolism make not depict the antioxidant and anti-atherogenic properties of TRF.

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