Access Type

Open Access Thesis

Date of Award

January 2011

Degree Type


Degree Name




First Advisor

Ty Partridge

Second Advisor

Ann M. Stacks


Cigarette smoking during pregnancy has been associated with negative child behavioral outcomes. Though many studies have found links between maternal smoking during pregnancy and behavior problems in children, few if any have looked into potential moderating factors of that relationship and few have examined the effects of second-hand smoking. This study examined child temperament at 6 months and sex as potential moderators of the relationship between maternal smoke exposure and both internalizing and externalizing behaviors at 24 month, 36 months and first grade. Both maternal smoking and maternal exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) were examined. Data for this study came from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care. Results indicate that temperament moderates the relationship between maternal ETS exposure during pregnancy and child externalizing behaviors in males at 24 months. Further research is needed to determine what other factors may moderate these relationships.