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Access Type

WSU Access

Date of Award

January 2019

Degree Type


Degree Name




First Advisor

Elizabeth Faue


Comic creators remain disadvantaged when entering into contractual negotiations with their employers. Their employers, comic publishers, use various structural mechanisms, such as the Comics Code Authority and the Copyright Act of 1976, to maintain their industrial dominance. After failing to create strong enough organizations in the 1970s to address this disadvantage, creators turned to consumers. Through diversifying characters and reforming superheroes with feminism, comic creators gained new bargaining power in the 1990s.

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