Access Type

Open Access Thesis

Date of Award

January 2016

Degree Type


Degree Name




First Advisor

Matthew J. Allen


Ligands of relevance to lanthanide ions have been synthesized and modified with respect to pKa and thermal conditions (both microwave and non-microwave). Microwave-assistance has been used previously to accelerate the rates of reactions of ligand syntheses, primarily as a thermal component in agreement with the Arrhenius equation. The modified syntheses of intermediates for lanthanide complexes presented in this thesis enable rapid synthesis of common intermediates—DO2A-methyl ester, DO2A-ethyl ester, and DO2A t-butyl ester—that previously required days to synthesize. Additionally, this modified synthesis can be performed with or without microwave irradiation, suggesting that the thermal component of the rate acceleration is not due to special microwave effects. Modification of the syntheses of these intermediates is useful for studies where DO2A-methyl ester, DO2A-ethyl ester, or DO2A t-butyl ester are used as precursors for the synthesis of ligands for lanthanide ions.

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