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Access Type

WSU Access

Date of Award

January 2011

Degree Type


Degree Name




First Advisor

Emily R. Grekin

Second Advisor

Steven J. Ondersma


Violence, substance use, and other parental risk factors associated with adverse child outcomes continue to be primarily conceptualized as individual difficulties, which overlooks the role of context in the development of these risk factors. In contrast, developmental researchers and theorists such as have emphasized the importance of viewing individuals within an ecological-transactional model, whereby the individual and the family are levels within a larger system that includes the neighborhood and larger social contexts. At a practical level, understanding more about the relationships between these factors may help direct efforts to improve family outcomes. This study aims to examine associations between home and neighborhood environments and two particularly relevant parental risk factors--violence exposure and substance use--among high-risk families participating in early home visitation. Results indicated that many of the constructs were associated, and that home environment moderated the association between violence and alcohol use.

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