Access Type

Open Access Dissertation

Date of Award


Degree Type


Degree Name



Biological Sciences

First Advisor

David R. Cook


Paenungulata (=PAEN). A total of 182 non-dental morphological characters from 100 species (79 extant, 21 extinct; 98 mammals and 2 non-mammals) was analyzed by two maximum parsimony tree building algorithms. Parallel analyses of 2,258 pairwise immunodiffusion (IMDFN) comparisons with 16 chicken antisera on 101 mammalian species (representing 22 taxa) and of amino acid sequence data of alpha and beta hemoglobins and other published protein sequences were also conducted. Morphological and molecular results agree that Eutheria consists of five major clades and that rates of evolution are similar in the two approaches. Following are close relationships based on osteological results: (1) Proboscidea, Sirenia, Desmostylia, Hyracoidea, Embrithopoda (=PAEN); (2) Cetacea, PAEN; (3) Tubulidentata, Ungulata (Artiodactyla and Perissodactyla), Notoungulata; (4) Ungulata, PAEN; and (5) Rodentia, Lagomorpha, Macroscelidea. Differences based on molecular results include: (1) Tubulidentata, PAEN; (2) Cetacea, Ungulata; (3) Distant Ungulata, PAEN; and (4) Carnivora, Pholidota.

Elephantidae. Analyses of 58 non-dental osteological characters show that among the Elephantidae Mammuthus(('+)) and Elephas are more closely related to each other than either is to Loxodonta; Gomphoterium(('+)) and Mammut(('+)) were employed as outgroups (+= extinct). These results are congruent with the classical dental-based hypothesis. Also, the lineage of Mammuthus-Elephas evolved faster than Loxodonta. Immunologically, however, it was not possible to establish which of the three genera shares closest kinship.

New findings include: (1) close immunological relationships of Tubulidentata to PAEN, and of Mammut americanum(('+)) to Elephantidae; (2) immunological reactivity of muscle and/or clotted blood from two of the three Mammuthus primigenius studied; (3) stylohyoideum characters, especially of Gomphotherium(('+)) and Serridentinus(('+)); and (4) many osteological characters and five skull foramina/openings.