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Access Type

WSU Access

Date of Award

January 2022

Degree Type


Degree Name



Biomedical Engineering

First Advisor

Kamran Avanaki


Laser scanning photoacoustic microscopy (LS-PAM) is a simple instrumentation of photoacoustic microscopy (PAM) system. However, existing LS-PAM systems pose some limitations. First, they utilize inefficient laser scanning mechanism that limits their capability to image large areas at higher speeds. Second, the data acquired per frame is huge, preventing easy transportation and storage. Third, due to their systems configuration, the images produced are blurred, axially misaligned and exhibit low signal to noise ratio (SNR). To address these limitations, we first developed a continuous and efficient spiral LS-PAM (sLS-PAM) system that can image a much wider area at a faster frame rate. We then utilized a large size ultrasound transducer to image an ultrawide area of 4cm diameter. To facilitate easy transport, storages, and analysis of data, we developed a fully paralyzed, real-time high-fidelity data compression algorithm without compromising on the image quality. To remove blurring artifact and axial misalignment, we implemented depth-corrected, aberration compensated algorithm to improve readability of images. To improve SNR of the images, different denoising algorithms with optimized parameters were investigated and their performance was evaluated. Different animal models were used in this study. To demonstrate functional imaging capability of sLS-PAM system, rat brain imaging was performed in-vivo, with whiskers and electrical stimulations. For ultrawide imaging, excised sheep brain was imaged and for data compression and image enhancement algorithms, mouse skin imaging was performed, in-vivo.

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