Access Type

Open Access Dissertation

Date of Award

January 2021

Degree Type


Degree Name




First Advisor

Marcus Dickson

Second Advisor

Paul Hanges


In the current study, I utilized multiple cultural constructs to create and compare the utility of various forms of cultural distance as a predictor of national-culture-level outcomes, aggregated across multiple countries (i.e., a novel term: “Aggregated Cultural Distance”, hereafter ACD). ACD was first conceptualized in the current study by utilizing the nine Global Leader and Organizational Behavior Effectiveness (hereafter Project GLOBE) Societal Values dimensions in the calculation of ACD. I incrementally added and compared Project GLOBE’s Societal Practices and Tightness-Looseness scores (i.e., norms) to the Values ACD construct in predicting self-isolationist leadership behaviors (i.e., Project GLOBE’s Autonomous and Self-Protective leadership styles). Additionally, physical (i.e., Geographic) distance, was added to the model as a covariate. Dominance analyses of values, practices, and norms was conducted. Finally, Corruption was hypothesized to be an outcome of ACD and geographic distance as well as self-isolationist leadership behaviors. A total effect model was also proposed where the relationships between ACD, geographic distance, and corruption were hypothesized to work through self-isolationist leadership behaviors. Archival national level data was utilized. Results demonstrated a significant effect of ACD comprised of values, practices, and norms on the self-protective leadership style. Separately, the self-protective leadership style was significantly related to corruption. The autonomous leadership style, the direct and total effect of ACD on corruption, as well as the impact of geographic distance, were not supported. Limitations, future directions, and implications for research and practice, are discussed.

Keywords: Cultural Distance, geographic distance, isolation, national culture, cross cultural, corruption, leadership, Project GLOBE