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Access Type

WSU Access

Date of Award

January 2021

Degree Type


Degree Name



Educational Leadership and Policy

First Advisor

Ben Pogodinzski


The purpose of this quantitative study is to investigate the funding equitably across community college districts in Michigan. Pursuant to this investigation, the disproportionate effect that community college funding has on underserved populations was examined. This research utilized a quantitative approach, including descriptive statistics, measures of horizontal equity, and regression analysis. The researcher gathered a panel of demographic and enrollment data for a 16-year period (2000-2016) for the Michigan, California, and New York. Enrollment and finance data were compiled from the National Center for Educational Statistics (NCES) and Integrated Postsecondary Education Data Systems (IPEDS) for each state. The enrollment data included the percentage of African-Americans attending each community college in the states included in the study. Income data was compiled from the U.S. Census American Community Survey an ongoing survey that provides vital information annually that helps determine how state and federal funds are distributed each year. Horizontal equity measures were used to research community college funding allocations across the state of Michigan. Subsequently, Michigan funding models were compared to the funding model for California and Michigan. This study is limited by focusing only on three states included in this research and the four-year increments between 2004 and 2016. Additionally, the study is limited by the segmenting of household income data at the county level to align with the 28 community college districts in Michigan. The focus of this study is on horizontal equity as defined by Berne and Stiefel (1984) and does not include measures of adequacy or variations in how other resources are distributed across community colleges.

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