Off-campus WSU users: To download campus access dissertations, please use the following link to log into our proxy server with your WSU access ID and password, then click the "Off-campus Download" button below.

Non-WSU users: Please talk to your librarian about requesting this dissertation through interlibrary loan.

Access Type

WSU Access

Date of Award

January 2021

Degree Type


Degree Name




First Advisor

Douglas Barnett


This dissertation examines cumulative risk of future child problem behaviors across four domains of risk factors (child characteristics risk, parent characteristics risk, socioeconomic risk, trauma and instability risk). Using an updated and modified version of Qi and Kaiser’s (2003) transactional model of risk, regression analyses were conducted to (a) explore the relationship between and the comparisons among four domains of cumulative risk during preschool years and child problem behaviors during the transition to elementary school, and (b) investigate the potential moderating effects of parenting behaviors and parent-child relationship processes on the relation between cumulative risk and subsequent child problem behaviors. This low-income sample included 128 parent-child dyads recruited from Head Start and Head Start-like preschools in an urban Midwestern city. Of the four domains of risk, significant associations with total problem behaviors were found for the domain of child characteristics and marginally significant associations were found for the domain of Instability and trauma. No direct or moderating associations were found for parenting behaviors and parent-child relationship processes. Findings within this study highlight the importance of early intervention (e.g., Head Start programing) for children and their parents who reside in low-income households.

Off-campus Download