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Date of Award
Nutrition and Food Science
Kai-Lin Catherine C. Jen
THE CHANGES IN DIETARY PATTERNS OF SAUDI WOMEN RESIDING IN SAUDI ARABIA, SOUTH KOREA, AND THE UNITED STATES: THE EFFECTS OF LENGTH OF RESIDENCY ON DIETARY ACCULTURATION
NOUF ABDULLAH ALHARBI
Advisor: Dr. Kai-Lin Catherine JenMajor: Nutrition & Food Science Degree: Doctor of Philosophy Given the large and growing numbers of Saudi individuals living abroad, examining how their dietary patterns have changed and influenced by acculturation with host countries, as well as the health consequences of these changes is a research area that needs to be investigated. The primary objectives of the present study were to compare the food intake/nutrient intake patterns of Saudi women residing in Saudi Arabia (SA), South Korea (KR) and the United States (US), and how the length of residency in host countries affected food and nutrient intake patterns. This study hypothesized that dietary patterns were different among the three groups of women residing in these three countries; the longer they left SA, the more likely their intake patterns were different from those newly arrived in the host countries and those who remained in SA; and body mass index (BMI) levels were different among the three countries, and that the health-related parameters and percentage of recommended intakes were different among the BMI categories. This study was a secondary analysis of a cross-sectional 24-hour dietary recall data which were collected from 100 participants (48 residing in SA, 25 in the US, and 27 in the KR) who lived abroad for less than or equal to five years or more than five years. The findings of the present study showed that dietary intakes were different among SA women in the three countries. The intake patterns were different between participants who were employed, more educated, or married as compared to those unemployed, less educated, or single. In addition, as the length of residency abroad increased, participants in both the US and KR showed different dietary intakes from those newly arrived in the US or KR and those who remained in SA. Acculturation was observed only in Saudi in the KR in terms of energy intake and protein intake in employed SA in KR. There was no significant difference in BMI among the participants of the three countries. Within each country, none of the percentage of recommended intakes were significantly different among the BMI categories. When combining the three countries together, percentage of recommended intake of SAT fat was significantly higher in participants with normal weight. No other nutrients showed any difference among the different BMI categories. Mean BMIs of participants with chronic diseases were significantly higher than those without chronic diseases. Only age and self-reported health status were significantly different according to BMI categories. Future research should recruit more participants to enlarger sample sizes, include male gender, use longitudinal research design, and administer acculturation questionnaires along with dietary recalls. In particular, we recommend including Saudi men and following these men and women for more than five years in the host countries in order to examine dietary acculturation and its effects on the development of chronic diseases in these expatriates.
Alharbi, Nouf, "The Changes In Dietary Patterns Of Saudi Women Residing In Saudi Arabia, South Korea, And The United States: The Effects Of Length Of Residency On Dietary Acculturation" (2021). Wayne State University Dissertations. 3435.