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Access Type

WSU Access

Date of Award


Degree Type


Degree Name



Counselor Education

First Advisor

Daisy Ellington


The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects Awareness Training (AT) has in promoting deficit awareness and psychosocial adjustment in individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI). The Awareness Training (AT) used in the study is derived from Ben-Yishay's model for teaching deficit awareness to TBI survivors. A quasi-experimental pre- and posttest two-treatment design was used in the study. A total of 26 traumatic brain injured adults who were receiving treatment at Rainbow Rehabilitation Centers (RRC) participated in the study. Participants were equally divided between two groups, with the treatment group receiving Awareness Training (AT) and the Standard Rehabilitation Treatment (SRI) group receiving treatment as usual. Client participants completed instruments that provided a measure for deficit awareness, anger and depression. Each client was assigned an observer-rater who responded to instruments assessing deficit awareness and psychosocial adjustment. Both client and staff instruments were completed on a pre and posttest basis. Demographic information from the client record was gathered by the researcher and examined in relationship to data obtained from the instruments. When the demographic characteristics were compared between the Awareness Training (AT) and Standard Rehabilitation Treatment (SRT) group, one statistically significant difference was found. The length of time since injury was significantly greater for the Standard Rehabilitation Treatment (SRT) group than for the Awareness Training (AT) group. Improvements in deficit awareness and psychosocial functioning with the Awareness Training (AT) group was anticipated, but not found. There was no statistically significant change found in anger and depression for Awareness Training participants.

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