Access Type

Open Access Dissertation

Date of Award

January 2011

Degree Type


Degree Name




First Advisor

Ty Partridge


There has been little work investigating multiple social identities, though an individual can identify with several groups (Kiang, Yip, & Fuligni, 2008). The aim of this study is to investigate the relationships among theoretically significant ingroup identifications and their contributions to adjustment in Arab American emerging adults. The Inclusion of the Ingroup in Self (IIS) measure and the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure - Revised (MEIM-R) were adapted to measure affirmation to ethnic, national (American), family, and religious groups. The results indicate that a pure model of pure affirmation could not be supported - it may be important to consider exploration behaviors. Results also indicated that individuals highly identified with ethnic, national (American), family, and religious groups report higher self-esteem and positive affect, as well as better relationships with parents. Regressions indicate that only religious identity predicted significant variance in positive affect, self-esteem, and ego competence. In addition, evidence was found for a mediating role of religious identity between ethnic identity and ego competence. Implications for positive youth development are discussed.