Off-campus WSU users: To download campus access dissertations, please use the following link to log into our proxy server with your WSU access ID and password, then click the "Off-campus Download" button below.

Non-WSU users: Please talk to your librarian about requesting this dissertation through interlibrary loan.

Access Type

WSU Access

Date of Award

January 2020

Degree Type


Degree Name



Biomedical Engineering

First Advisor

Mai T. Lam

Second Advisor

Jian-Ping Jin


Creation of an in vitro atherosclerotic disease model using the novel Ring Stacking Method. Singular self-assembling tissue rings made up smooth muscle cells and fibrin hydrogel are stacked on one another to create a tissue engineered vessel. These biologically engineered blood vessels are then seeded with endothelial cells via combined static rotational and dynamic bioreactor in order to create a functional intima layer. Early stage atherosclerosis was induced via the addition of oxidized low-density lipoproteins (ox-LDL) to the fibrin hydrogel that creates the media layer of the engineered vessel. After the creation of the intima layer the engineered vessel was then statically seeded with THP-1 monocytes differentiated into M1 macrophages via phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) for 24 hours over the course of 3 days. On the second and third day calci-protein particles (CPPs) along with fibroblast-derived growth factor (FGF) and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) were added to the THP-1 differentiation suspension. Following static macrophage seeding the engineered disease vessel was frozen, sectioned and stained via an Oil Red O stain to visualize the macrophage migration and uptake of the ox-LDLs in the hydrogel. Late stage atherosclerotic calcification was characterized via the incorporation of CPPs into engineered vessels. These vessels were mechanically tested, and the data was incorporated into a system coupled computer fluid dynamic (CFD) simulation via ANSYS 19. Engineered disease media (EDM) rings pre-seeded with smooth muscle cells, ox-LDLs, undifferentiated THP-1 cells and CPPs were mechanically and histologically characterized.

Off-campus Download