Open Access Dissertation
Date of Award
Loren . Schwiebert
Optimizing nested loops has been considered as an important topic and widely studied in parallel programming. With the development of GPU architectures, the performance of these computations can be significantly boosted with the massively parallel hardware.
General matrix-matrix multiplication is a typical example where executing such an algorithm on GPUs outperforms the performance obtained on other multicore CPUs. However, achieving ideal performance on GPUs usually requires a lot of human effort to manage
the massively parallel computation resources. Therefore, the efficient implementation of optimizing nested loops on GPUs became a popular topic in recent years. We present our work based on the tiling strategy in this dissertation to address three kinds of popular
problems. Different kinds of computations bring in different latency issues where dependencies in the computation may result in insufficient parallelism and the performance of computations without dependencies may be degraded due to intensive memory accesses. In this thesis, we tackle the challenges for each kind of problem and believe that other computations performed in nested loops can also benefit from the presented techniques.
We improve a parallel approximation algorithm for the problem of scheduling jobs on parallel identical machines to minimize makespan with a high-dimensional tiling method. The algorithm is designed and optimized for solving this kind of problem efficiently on GPUs. Because the algorithm is based on a higher-dimensional dynamic programming approach, where dimensionality refers to the number of variables in the dynamic programming equation characterizing the problem, the existing implementation suffers from the pain of dimensionality and cannot fully utilize GPU resources. We design a novel data-partitioning technique to accelerate the higher-dimensional dynamic programming component of the algorithm. Both the load imbalance and exceeding memory capacity
issues are addressed in our GPU solution. We present performance results to demonstrate how our proposed design improves the GPU utilization and makes it possible to solve large higher-dimensional dynamic programming problems within the limited GPU memory.
Experimental results show that the GPU implementation achieves up to 25X speedup compared to the best existing OpenMP implementation.
In addition, we focus on optimizing wavefront parallelism on GPUs. Wavefront parallelism is a well-known technique for exploiting the concurrency of applications that execute nested loops with uniform data dependencies. Recent research on such applications,
which range from sequence alignment tools to partial differential equation solvers, has used GPUs to benefit from the massively parallel computing resources. Wavefront parallelism faces the load imbalance issue because the parallelism is passing along the diagonal.
The tiling method has been introduced as a popular solution to address this issue. However, the use of hyperplane tiles increases the cost of synchronization and leads to poor data locality. In this paper, we present a highly optimized implementation of the wavefront
parallelism technique that harnesses the GPU architecture. A balanced workload and maximum resource utilization are achieved with an extremely low synchronization overhead. We design the kernel configuration to significantly reduce the minimum number of
synchronizations required and also introduce an inter-block lock to minimize the overhead of each synchronization. We evaluate the performance of our proposed technique for four different applications: Sequence Alignment, Edit Distance, Summed-Area Table, and 2DSOR. The performance results demonstrate that our method achieves speedups of up to six times compared to the previous best-known hyperplane tiling-based GPU implementation.
Finally, we extend the hyperplane tiling to high order 2D stencil computations. Unlike wavefront parallelism that has dependence in the spatial dimension, dependence remains only across two adjacent time steps along the temporal dimension in stencil computations.
Even if the no-dependence property significantly increases the parallelism obtained in the spatial dimensions, full parallelism may not be efficient on GPUs. Due to the limited cache capacity owned by each streaming multiprocessor, full parallelism can be obtained
on global memory only, which has high latency to access. Therefore, the tiling technique can be applied to improve the memory efficiency by caching the small tiled blocks. Because the widely studied tiling methods, like overlapped tiling and split tiling, have considerable computation overhead caused by load imbalance or extra operations, we propose a time skewed tiling method, which is designed upon the GPU architecture. We work around the serialized computation issue and coordinate the intra-tile parallelism and inter-tile parallelism to minimize the load imbalance caused by pipelined processing. Moreover, we address the high-order stencil computations in our development, which has not been comprehensively studied. The proposed method achieves up to 3.5X performance improvement when the stencil computation is performed on a Moore neighborhood pattern.
Li, Yuanzhe, "Tiling Optimization For Nested Loops On Gpus" (2020). Wayne State University Dissertations. 2362.