Open Access Dissertation
Date of Award
Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering
Massive amount of electronic medical records (EMRs) accumulating from patients and populations motivates clinicians and data scientists to collaborate for the advanced analytics to create knowledge that is essential to address the extensive personalized insights needed for patients, clinicians, providers, scientists, and health policy makers. Learning from large and complicated data is using extensively in marketing and commercial enterprises to generate personalized recommendations. Recently the medical research community focuses to take the benefits of big data analytic approaches and moves to personalized (precision) medicine. So, it is a significant period in healthcare and medicine for transferring to a new paradigm. There is a noticeable opportunity to implement a learning health care system and data-driven healthcare to make better medical decisions, better personalized predictions; and more precise discovering of risk factors and their interactions. In this research we focus on data-driven approaches for personalized medicine. We propose a research framework which emphasizes on three main phases: 1) Predictive modeling, 2) Patient subgroup analysis and 3) Treatment recommendation. Our goal is to develop novel methods for each phase and apply them in real-world applications.
In the fist phase, we develop a new predictive approach based on feature representation using deep feature learning and word embedding techniques. Our method uses different deep architectures (Stacked autoencoders, Deep belief network and Variational autoencoders) for feature representation in higher-level abstractions to obtain effective and more robust features from EMRs, and then build prediction models on the top of them. Our approach is particularly useful when the unlabeled data is abundant whereas labeled one is scarce. We investigate the performance of representation learning through a supervised approach. We perform our method on different small and large datasets. Finally we provide a comparative study and show that our predictive approach leads to better results in comparison with others.
In the second phase, we propose a novel patient subgroup detection method, called Supervised Biclustring (SUBIC) using convex optimization and apply our approach to detect patient subgroups and prioritize risk factors for hypertension (HTN) in a vulnerable demographic subgroup (African-American). Our approach not only finds patient subgroups with guidance of a clinically relevant target variable but also identifies and prioritizes risk factors by pursuing sparsity of the input variables and encouraging similarity among the input variables and between the input and target variables.
Finally, in the third phase, we introduce a new survival analysis framework using deep learning and active learning with a novel sampling strategy. First, our approach provides better representation with lower dimensions from clinical features using labeled (time-to-event) and unlabeled (censored) instances and then actively trains the survival model by labeling the censored data using an oracle. As a clinical assistive tool, we propose a simple yet effective treatment recommendation approach based on our survival model. In the experimental study, we apply our approach on SEER-Medicare data related to prostate cancer among African-Americans and white patients. The results indicate that our approach outperforms significantly than baseline models.
Zafar Nezhad, Milad, "Data-Driven Modeling For Decision Support Systems And Treatment Management In Personalized Healthcare" (2018). Wayne State University Dissertations. 2083.