Access Type

Open Access Dissertation

Date of Award

January 2017

Degree Type


Degree Name




First Advisor

Wen Li


Electrons are the driving force behind every chemical reaction. The exchange, ionization, or even relaxation of electrons is behind every bond broken or formed. According to the Bohr model of the atom, it takes an electron 150 as to orbit a proton[6]. With this as a unit time scale for an electron, it is clear that a pulse duration of several femtoseconds will not be sufficient to understanding electron dynamics. Our work demonstrates both technical and scientific achievements that push the boundaries of attosecond dynamics. TDSE studies show that amplification the yield of high harmonic generation (HHG) may be possible with transverse confinement of the electron. XUV-pump-XUV-probe shows that the yield of APT train can be sufficient for 2-photon double ionization studies. A zero dead-time detection system allows for the measurement of state-resolved double ionization for the first time. Exploiting attosecond angular streaking[7] probes sequential and non-sequential double ionization via electron-electron correlations with attosecond time resolution. Finally, using recoil frame momentum correlation, the fast dissociation of CH3I reveals important orbital ionization dynamics of non-dissociative & dissociative, single & double ionization.