Access Type

Open Access Dissertation

Date of Award

January 2014

Degree Type


Degree Name



Instructional Technology

First Advisor

Monica Tracey



This research study examined the effects of strategically designed crash cart training using Keller's motivational design model ARCS (Keller, 2010) for novice nurses. The purpose of this mixed methods design-based research study was to determine the motivational levels of novice/beginner nurses in the work environment and seek out whether or not motivational designed instruction for the crash cart will significantly impact their mastery of the crash cart. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected within iterations of the study to determine the motivational levels of novice nurses pertaining to crash cart training. Motivational levels were determined utilizing Keller's (2010), "Course Interest Survey" and the "Instructional Materials Motivation Survey".

The literature review incorporated learning, motivational, and instructional design theories compiling a comprehensive understanding from a historical view to current trends in design and research. Included in the literature review were the ARCS motivational design model, layers of negotiation model and crash cart training. The overall review was to examine what was known in the field of instructional design and to determine what the current methods of training nurses with the crash cart.

The convenience sample for this study was novice-beginner nurses from two participating hospitals, that are part of a large medical center in South Eastern Michigan, located in the Detroit metropolitan area. There were 5 different groups of participants that were derived from the 28 participants that received training throughout the research study.

Findings from the study revealed that motivational levels of nurses had increased with motivationally designed training using Keller's ARCS model and strategies. The data was presented using descriptive statistics to report the findings of the study. The iterative nature of design-based research along with social negotiations using the layers of negotiation proved to be an effective way to design motivational instruction.

This was a designed-based, mixed methods research study perhaps was the first, that actually addressed the motivational levels of nurses with iterations while designing the training for crash carts. Many studies reported that nurses remained fearful and lacked confidence in spite of the mock code blue training methodology that typically is used for learning the crash cart.

This design-based research study proves that through iterative process using motivational design strategies along with social negotiations yield robust results to instruction. Additionally the findings of the study should prompt nursing educators to examine closely the motivational levels of nurses so they to can design the most effective training for them.