Access Type

Open Access Dissertation

Date of Award


Degree Type


Degree Name




First Advisor

Dr. Madeleine Leininger


The domain of inquiry was generic and professional cultural care meanings and practices of Finnish women in birth. The purpose was to discover culture care diversities and universalities of generic and professional care of Finnish women in birth. Discovery of the epistemic and ontological dimensions of women's health and well being related to providing culture care was held to contribute to the body of transcultural nursing knowledge. Previous transcultural nursing studies of birthing in different cultures with a care focus was held as essential to understand health care practices and well being. The need exists for further indepth studies of care meanings and practices for women of diverse cultures and will significantly encourage holistic and humanistic care. Leininger's theory of Culture Care with the ethnonursing and audiovisual research methods, was used to study the generic and professional care meanings and practices. Several enablers were used to obtain indepth knowledge about Finnish birthing practices from the holistic emic and etic perspectives. The data were obtained by using observation and reflection in the active participation in the birth experiences of ten Finnish women identified as key informants. In the analysis of data, Leininger's Phases of Ethnonursing Analysis for Qualitative Data was used for a systematic and indepth ethnonursing investigation. Major themes identified in the generic care practices were found to be comfort care and physical care; themes identified in the professional care practices were found to be ritualized care and anticipatory care. Although many universalities were found to exist in the generic and professional care meanings and practices, the diversity that was identified existed in the satisfaction expressed with the birth experience. This indepth knowledge of the generic and professional care meanings and practices, the cultural care dimensions of the Finnish culture, and the cultural diversities and universalities that exist in the findings will assist nurses in planning and providing culturally congruent care-important implications as our world becomes more culturally diverse.