Open Access Dissertation
Date of Award
Rosalind M. Peters
DEVELOPMENT AND INITIAL PSYCHOMETRIC TESTING OF THE PERCEIVED RACISM SHIFTING SURVEY (PRSS)
SARAN T. HOLLIER, MSN, RN
Advisor: Dr. Rosalind Peters
Degree: Doctor of Philosophy
Perceived racism experienced from those of a different race (intergroup), and those of the same race (intragroup), is a stressor that may be contributing to health disparities among African Americans. As a result, coping strategies are necessary for African Americans to navigate in both a "Black" and "White" world. Hence, African Americans may use "shifting" as a way to cope with inter- and intragroup racism. Shifting has been defined in this study as the external and internal processes used to manage the anticipation of both inter- and intragroup racism. The purpose of this study was to develop and test a culturally-sensitive instrument that assessed "shifting" as a strategy to manage the anticipation of interpersonal racism among African Americans. The Model of Perceived Racism and Shifting (MPRS), derived from the stress and coping framework described by Lazarus (1999) and Lazarus and Folkman (1984) guided this study.
The Perceived Racism Shifting Survey (PRSS) was developed and tested in three phases. Phase one included item development and expert content evaluation. Phase two included pretesting and pilot testing of the items established as a result of the first phase. Phase three included initial psychometric evaluation using evidence of content, internal structure, and relationships based on other variables.
The PRSS was evaluated in a non-probability sample of 145 African American males and females. The instrument utilized a seven-point likert scale to measure "shifting". The results of the exploratory factor analysis (EFA) revealed four domains of "shifting", seven factors conceptualized as subscales, and 29 items. Initial psychometric testing revealed good reliability of the total scale, however there was limited evidence of convergent and concurrent validity.
Key findings in this study indicate that African Americans "shift" in association with experiences of both inter and intragroup racial discrimination. Additionally, the interaction of "shifting" and experiences of racial discrimination significantly predicted positive affect (PA), suggesting that "shifting" may have a positive influence on mental health.
Hollier, Saran, "Development And Initial Psychometric Testing Of The Perceived Racism Shifting Survey (prss)" (2014). Wayne State University Dissertations. 1142.