Although the effect of physical and relational (i.e., traditional) victimization on psychopathology is established, the interdependent contribution of cybervictimization is unclear. We test a longitudinal path model theorizing that (a) children’s physical and relational victimization in Grade 4 or 5 is associated with more cybervictimization experiences when they are in Grade 5 or 6 (when independent access to cybertechnology typically begins to increase), and (b) cybervictimization and traditional victimization experiences are associated with internalizing symptoms and aggressive behaviors at the end of Grade 5 or 6 (controlling for prior levels). Five waves of data were collected from children, parents, and teachers in 27 rural Canadian schools involved in an evaluation of a bullying-prevention program. Analyses for this study were based on the subsample of participants in Grades 5 and 6 (n = 714, Mage = 11.0) who completed cybervictimization questionnaires in the final two waves (i.e., fall and spring of 1 academic year). Participants also completed all other measures at each assessment point. All forms of victimization were correlated with internalizing symptoms and aggressive behaviors, within time. Across time, relational victimization was independently associated with more cybervictimization and physical victimization. Relational victimization was also independently associated with more aggressive behaviors for boys only, but not with internalizing symptoms for girls or boys. Physical and cybervictimization was not related to aggressive behaviors or internalizing symptoms over time. Prevention efforts that target relational victimization may reduce cybervictimization and physical victimization and aggressive behaviors in elementary school.
Holfeld, Brett and Leadbeater, Bonnie J.
"The Interrelated Effects of Traditional and Cybervictimization on the Development of Internalizing Symptoms and Aggressive Behaviors in Elementary School,"
Merrill-Palmer Quarterly: Vol. 64
, Article 3.
Available at: https://digitalcommons.wayne.edu/mpq/vol64/iss2/3