We evaluated the extent to which aggressive victims show unique developmental pathways that are different from those of passive victims, bullies, and uninvolved children. A total of 1,722 children were followed from 4th grade to 6th grade, and the prevalence and stability of each group were assessed. Aggressive victims became less prevalent and passive victims and bullies became more prevalent with age. Although it was common for aggressive victims and bullies to move from one group to the other across time, there was little overlap with the passive victim group. Stability estimates were higher for the bully and aggressive victim groups than for the passive victim group, and patterns of stability were influenced by peer rejection and exposure to violence.
Hanish, Laura D. and Guerra, Nancy G.
"Aggressive Victims, Passive Victims,
and Bullies: Developmental Continuity
or Developmental Change?,"
Merrill-Palmer Quarterly: Vol. 50
, Article 4.
Available at: https://digitalcommons.wayne.edu/mpq/vol50/iss1/4