The study examines how externalizing as well as internalizing behavioral problems in childhood and adolescence predict young adults’ personalities as represented by Loevinger’s (1976) model of ego development. The sample consisted of 103 individuals studied longitudinally from ages 7 to 22. Behavioral problems were measured by teacher ratings at ages 9, 12 and 15, whereas egolevel was assessed once at age 22. Overall, both kinds of behavioral problems were substantially associated with ego-level attainment at age 22, even when gender, SES and level of education were controlled. Externalizing problems specifically predicted ego-level attainment below conformity ( E3). By contrast, internalizing problems were related particularly to difficulties in attaining egolevels above conformity ( E6). The study demonstrates that behavioral problems in childhood and adolescence predict young adults’ ego-level attainment in unique and meaningful ways.
Krettenauer, Tobias; Ullrich, Manuela; Hofmann, Volker; and Edelstein, Wolfgang
"Behavioral Problems in Childhood
and Adolescence as Predictors
of Ego-Level Attainment
in Early Adulthood,"
Merrill-Palmer Quarterly: Vol. 49
, Article 2.
Available at: https://digitalcommons.wayne.edu/mpq/vol49/iss2/2