This article investigates the concept of carrier consolidation and how it impacts the performance measurements of the carrier for measured variables to the shipper. It recommends treating the carrier base as a portfolio of assets, with each carrier contributing unique, strategic advantages to the sum of the whole.
Farris, M Theodore. (1997). Carrier portfolio management. Journal of Transportation Management, 9(2), 32-36. doi: 10.22237/jotm/873072360