Government regulations in the international air and ocean shipping industry have undergone a wide range of new developments geared towards deregulation. These changes, coupled with the emergence of new technologies, have facilitated foreign trade operations leading to a substantial increase in international air and ocean cargo traffic in recent years. This study investigates the regulation reforms that have affected pricing techniques in both industries and their implications on the negotiation strategies adopted by shippers and carriers. The survey results identified that each shipping firm negotiated on a variety of issues and employed more than one strategy for negotiating price.
Baboo, Padmapriya & Thomchick, Evelyn. (2003). Price negotiation strategies adopted by shippers of international air and ocean transportation. Journal of Transportation Management, 14(2), 61-74. doi: 10.22237/jotm/1062374760