As trade markets continue to expand due to developments in transportation and logistics technologies, distribution networks extend well beyond national frontiers. With obstacles such as distance, language, and business customs, allocation of legal responsibility between a buyer and a seller of goods becomes even more crucial in international commerce. This document is presented in three general sections. Reviewing the basics, including definition, origin, use and classifications of INCOTERMS constitutes the first section. The second section describes and analyzes the differences between each of the 13 INCOTERMS 2000. Lastly, the changes introduced by the 2000 revision are studied in more detail in section three and implications are proffered.
Stapleton, Drew M. & Saulnier, Virginie. (1999). Defining dyadic cost and risk in international trade: a review of incoterms 2000 with strategic implications. Journal of Transportation Management, 11(2), 25-43. doi: 10.22237/jotm/936144240