Alphabet letter recognition item responses from 1,299 rising kindergarten children from low-income families were used to determine the dimensionality of letter recognition ability. The rising kindergarteners were enrolled in preschool classrooms implementing a research-based early literary curriculum. Item responses from the TERA-3 subtests were also analyzed. Results indicated alphabet letter recognition was unitary. The ability of boys and younger children was less than girls and older children. Child-level letter recognition was highly associated with TERA-3 measures of letter knowledge and conventions of print. Classroom-level mean letter recognition ability accounted for most of variance in classroom mean TERA-3 scores.