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In northeast Argentina, different Amerindian communities share territory and history with settlers, mainly Europeans. Due to miscegenation, the current Argentinean population has a particular structure that can be described through X chromosome variation. The objectives of this study were to describe the variation of 10 X-chromosome short tandem repeats (X-STRs) in urban populations of the Argentinean regions known as Gran Chaco and Mesopotamia, report the forensic parameters of these STRs, and estimate the European and indigenous genetic components in these regions. Population and forensic parameters were estimated for 419 individuals from the analyzed populations, including two indigenous groups, Wichí and Mocoví, previously reported. Population structure was estimated through FST and RST distances and analysis of molecular variance. The indigenous American and European components were assessed with STRUCTURE. X-STRs showed a high level of genetic variability in urban and indigenous populations. Indigenous people of the Gran Chaco region showed significant differentiation from the urban samples (FST = 5.5%) and among themselves (FST = 5.3%). Genetic differentiation among urban groups was almost negligible, except that the population from Misión Nueva Pompeya differed from the rest of the city populations. Forensic parameters indicate that these X-STRs are useful as a complement to paternity tests. The set of 10 STRs could be a good tool for examining population differences.