Document Type



We investigated the genetic differentiation of five X-chromosome STR markers among five native South American Amerindian populations inhabiting three different areas of the Gran Chaco: Mocoví, Chorote, Wichí, Lengua, and Ayoreo. The observed genetic structure showed correspondence with geographic distribution more clearly than previous information obtained from autosomal STRs for the same samples. On the other hand, X-chromosome STR data did not agree with linguistic affinities. These markers proved to be informative for the study of the native populations of the Gran Chaco region.