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Associations with past malarial morbidity, season of conception, and common diseases such as obesity, type 2 diabetes, and allergy argue against neutrality of the ACP1 genetic polymorphism. Comparison of ACP1 distribution in mothers and their newborns and analysis of the joint wife-husband ACP1 phenotype distribution in couples with repeated spontaneous abortion suggest a negative effect of the ACP1*C allele on early life viability. Analysis of the polymorphism of the ACP1 gene suggests that, unlike the ACP1*A and ACP1*B alleles, the ACP1*C allele is independent of sequences in the 5 flanking region, resulting in an inverted F/S isoform ratio.