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Two hundred twenty-one individuals from four groups located around the Brazilian town of Porto Velho, Rondônia, were studied in relation to four sites located within or near the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene. The allele frequencies, when considered individually, do not depart markedly from frequencies obtained from other populations of mainly European descent. However, when haplotypes were estimated, two of the groups departed markedly from other Brazilian and non-Brazilian samples. This finding is probably related to the complex multiethnic origin of these groups.