Past considerations of kin selection have assumed a dyadic fitness exchange relationship between altruist and recipient. This approach does not account for all alleles affected by altruistic behavior. This can be corrected by focusing on matings rather than on individuals. I present a model that tries to account for fitness changes resulting from altruistic acts, not only for the altruist and recipient but also for their spouses, in an evolving population. Results from this model indicate that Hamilton’s rule fails to predict when the altruism allele will increase in frequency and, more important, suggest that kin selection can, at most, account for low levels of a gene for altruism but only if fairly extreme conditions are met.
Williams, B J.
"Kin Selection in Human Populations: Theory Reconsidered,"
4, Article 1.
Available at: https://digitalcommons.wayne.edu/humbiol/vol77/iss4/1